Display a surface of a projected statistical map


I want to project an array of data (thickness for example) on a 3D mesh surface (.stl file).
When trying the 4.0.1 version, it was then possible to display colored 3D mesh rendering but only for magnitude or cell Normals with respect to each direction in the space (x,y and z).
My goal is to display colored mesh surface but according to other input values such as the volume thickness or any other statistical array of scalar data.
Is there a solution for this task please?

Thank you.